The steering of the car is rack—and-pinion, with power steering. Steering gear of the "pinion-rail" type
In the crankcase of the steering mechanism, a drive gear is mounted on two bearings, which is engaged with a gear rack.
When the steering wheel is turned, the steering column shaft turns, which is connected to the drive gear through an intermediate shaft (at the ends of which there are cardan joints).
The gear moves the rail, which turns the steering wheels of the car through the steering rods with tips and the levers of the rotary fists connected to them.
The crankcase of the steering mechanism is attached to the subframe with two bolts.
In the crankcase of the steering mechanism, the rack is pressed to the drive gear through the stop.
The adjustment of the lateral gap between the gear and the rail is performed by rotating the adjusting plug.
Adjustment is carried out only when assembling the steering mechanism at the factory.
In operation, the gap is not subject to adjustment.
The steering drive consists of two steering rods connected to the steering rack and steering knuckle levers.
Each rod is attached with the inner end to the steering rack through a non-removable ball joint — the threaded tip of the hinge is screwed into the opening of the rack.
In the middle part of the steering rod, a turnkey hexagon "on 13" is made, and at the outer end there is a thread (right), on which the tip of the rod is screwed.
There is a non-removable ball joint in the tip of the steering rod, which does not require replenishing the supply of lubricant embedded inside it for the entire service life.
The right and left steering rods are the same, and the tips are different.
The connection of the steering rack and the steering rod ball joint is protected from dirt and moisture by a corrugated rubber cover.
The cover is fixed with a plastic yoke on the crankcase of the steering mechanism, and on the steering rod the cover is held due to the elasticity of rubber — at the same time, the narrow belt of the cover must coincide with the groove made on the steering rod.
When assembling the steering mechanism at the factory, the threaded connection of the tip of the steering rod hinge with the rail is protected from turning away by a fixing anaerobic sealant.
The steering column is injury-proof, with a steering wheel tilt adjustment mechanism.
The steering column shaft is attached to the steering gear drive through an intermediate shaft with two cardan joints.
The intermediate shaft to ensure injury safety is made composite.
In case of a frontal impact of the car during an accident, the steering column should not move towards the driver.
This is achieved due to the splined connection in the middle part of the shaft.
A steering wheel is mounted on the slots in the upper part of the steering column shaft, secured with a screw.
The steering column is attached to the crossbeam bracket located under the instrument panel.
A hydraulic power steering system is installed on the car.
The power steering system includes: steering gear, pump, reservoir for working fluid and connecting tubes of highways.
A liquid pressure sensor is installed in the injection line to issue a signal to the electronic engine control unit.
The pump is driven by a belt from the drive pulley of the auxiliary units.
Hydraulic fluid from the tank enters the pump, and from it is supplied under high pressure to a switchgear located in a separate housing on the crankcase of the steering mechanism and mechanically connected to the shaft of the steering column.
The switchgear is designed to monitor the mismatch of the steering wheel rotation angles and the shaft of the steering gear drive mechanism and strictly dosed to change the fluid pressure in the chambers of the actuator.
The hydraulic cylinder piston is fixed on the gear rack of the steering mechanism.
When the steering wheel is turned, the switchgear connects one of the hydraulic cylinder chambers to the pump discharge line, and the other chamber to the drain.
At the same time, the piston of the hydraulic cylinder, due to the difference in the pressure of the working fluid, moves the rail to the left or right and turns the controlled wheels of the car through the steering rods and fist levers.
In case of failure of the hydraulic booster, the ability to control the car is preserved, but at the same time the force on the steering wheel increases.
To control the liquid level in the hydraulic booster tank, MIN and MAX marks are applied on its translucent body.
Possible steering malfunctions and correction methods
Fault cause Troubleshooting Methods
Increased steering wheel freewheel
The tightening of the nuts for fixing the ball pins of the rod tips has loosened - Tighten the nuts
Increased clearance in the ball joints of the steering rod tips - Replace the rod tips
Large gap between the rail stop and the nut - Adjust the gap in the steering mechanism
Steering wheel rotates tight
Breakage or weak tension of the belt drive of auxiliary units - Check the condition of the belt. Replace the belt
Low fluid level in the power steering tank - Replace the pump, pump the system
The bearing of the upper support of the front suspension support is damaged - Replace the bearing of the support
The support sleeve or the steering rack stop is damaged - Replace the damaged parts or the steering gear assembly
Low tire pressure of the front wheels - Set the normal tire pressure
Steering rod tip hinges are damaged - Replace the steering rod tips
Steering gear bearings are damaged - Replace bearings or steering gear assembly
The front wheel mounting angles are broken - Adjust the wheel mounting angles
The steering gear attachment is loose - Tighten the steering gear mounting bolts to the subframe
Uneven resistance to steering wheel rotation with the engine running
Presence of air in the steering hydraulic system - Remove air from the hydraulic system
Insufficient pressure of the hydraulic booster working fluid - Replace the power steering pump
Jamming of the spool of the steering gear switchgear - Replace the steering gear