The car accelerates poorly
There are many reasons for the deterioration of dynamics, the main ones can be defined as follows.
Engine malfunction - loss of compression in one or more cylinders, coking of the exhaust system, or damage to the catalytic converter.
Power system malfunction - Clogged fuel injectors of the engine, fuel filter, pipes and hoses of the fuel supply system. The use of low-quality fuel.
Malfunction of the pressurization system - failure of the turbocharger or loose fit of the hoses of the system on the pipes of the intercooler or turbocharger.
Malfunction of the engine management system - failure of the system sensors
In case of failure of any sensor, the electronic control unit switches to work according to the backup program, which allows you to get to the garage or car service, but this reduces the power and economic characteristics of the engine.
Slipping of the clutch due to wear or malfunction of the drive for its disengagement.
Brake system malfunction - braking of one or more wheels on the move, incorrect adjustment of the parking brake.
Insufficient tire pressure.
Overloading the vehicle.
Check and adjust the tire pressure.
Check the operation of the service brake system and the parking brake
It is not necessary to remove the wheels for this. Find a flat stretch of road and, in dry, calm weather, perform a run-down check.
The car must be fully fueled, only the driver is in the cabin.
Accelerate the vehicle to 50 km / h, level out the speed, and then disengage and coast to a complete stop.
Carry out another drive in the opposite direction. The runout should be about 500 m.
Check clutch operation
The initial check is carried out on a level, unobstructed area. Set the accelerator pedal to an increased idle speed - about 1500 min-1.
Apply the parking brake to the vehicle. Depress the clutch and engage first gear.
Then begin to smoothly release the clutch pedal. If the engine dies, the clutch is good and will not slip.
If the engine does not stall, the clutch is worn out and requires replacement (manual adjustment of the clutch is not provided in operation, wear is automatically compensated by a special device in the working cylinder of the hydraulic drive).
Engine stalled while driving
First, find out if there is fuel in the tank. Switch on the ignition and look at the fuel gauge.
If the orange fuel reserve lamp does not light up and the pointer arrow indicates the presence of fuel, it can be assumed that there is fuel in the tank.
Open the hood and carefully examine the engine compartment.
Pay attention to the integrity of all units.
Check if all wires are in place, if there are any broken, burnt, or damaged insulation.
Inspect the supply line, it may be pinched or clogged (in particular, paraffin deposits, usually due to low quality diesel fuel or inappropriateness of the season of operation, in this case, after parking the car for several hours in a warm room at an air temperature of at least + 10 ° The engine starts without problems).
Wax deposits usually accumulate in either the fuel filter or the coarse filter screen in the receiver module installed in the fuel tank.
Paraffin clogged filters can cause clogging and nozzles.
Check the fuse for the injection system installed in the mounting block (article - Replacing fuses and relays GAZelle Next).
Replace blown fuse.
Inspect the coolant expansion tank for coolant leaks.
Also check the oil level in the engine crankcase. If everything is in order, proceed with the checks of the engine management and power systems, which are described earlier.
In addition, a sudden stop of the engine and the impossibility of subsequent start-up can cause the failure of the crankshaft position sensor or the disconnection of the harness block from it.
Oil pressure dropped
The instrument cluster of the GAZelle Next car has a warning lamp for an emergency drop in oil pressure in the engine.
For reliable operation of the engine, it is necessary that a sufficiently high pressure is constantly provided in the engine lubrication system.
Open the hood. Do not rush to immediately check the engine oil level, let it drain into the oil sump, it will take two to three minutes.
During this time, carefully inspect the engine for fresh oil leaks.
Look under the front, part of the car - whether the engine oil sump is punctured, whether there is an oil leak.
Pay attention to the oil filter.
Oil can leak from under the rubber gasket on the cover if it is damaged, or from the filter itself if the filter is loose. Sometimes it is enough to turn it clockwise a little.
We take out the oil level dipstick
This is the location of the dipstick
Wipe the dipstick with a cleaning cloth and insert into place
We take out the dipstick again.
If the oil level is close to the lower mark or below it, add oil to the standard.
Start the engine. If the warning light goes out at normal level, you can continue driving.
If the lamp still burns, check the serviceability of the oil pressure sensor. To do this, unscrew the standard oil pressure sensor and install a mechanical pressure gauge in its place.
If the pressure at the minimum idle speed is more than 25 kPa (0.25 kgf / cm2) and increases with increasing speed, the sensor or its electrical circuit is faulty.
If you do not have a pressure gauge, it remains only to check the reliability of the contact in the block with the sensor wires or replace the sensor with a known good one.
If, after eliminating all visible causes, the oil pressure in the engine is insufficient (the warning lamp for an emergency oil pressure drop is on), diagnose and repair the engine.
Overheating of the engine
The vehicle's instrument cluster contains a coolant temperature gauge.
If the engine overheats, the pointer arrow approaches the red zone.
At the same time, the engine overheating warning light comes on (shown by the arrow in the photo).
At the first signs of overheating, if the arrow of the temperature gauge has gone into the red zone, but clouds of steam are not escaping from under the hood, turn the knob for adjusting the temperature of the air entering the passenger compartment to the extreme right position, turn on the heater motor at maximum speed.
Run the engine for a couple of minutes at normal idle speed with the heater on at full power.
Do not stop the engine immediately! The only condition is to maintain the tightness of the cooling system.
If the hose bursts or comes off, or if another leak occurs (other than fluid escaping from the expansion tank plug), the engine will have to be stopped immediately!
After stopping the overheated engine, local overheating of the coolant begins in the places of its contact with the most heat-stressed engine parts and the formation of steam locks. This phenomenon is called heatstroke.
Stop the engine.
Open the hood and inspect the engine compartment.
Determine where the steam is coming from.
When inspecting the engine, pay attention to the presence of coolant in the expansion tank, to the intact rubber hoses, radiator, thermostat.
Never open the expansion tank cap directly. The liquid in the cooling system is under pressure, when the plug is opened, the pressure will drop sharply, the liquid will boil, and its splashes can scald you.
If you want to open the expansion tank cap on a hot engine, first place a thick cleaning cloth on top and only then carefully turn the cap.
Look under the dashboard for coolant leaks from the radiator or heater hoses.
If coolant leaks are found, the burst hose can be temporarily repaired with adhesive tape.
Reinforced (for example, silver colored) adhesive tape, which can be obtained from car dealerships, is especially suitable for this purpose.
A radiator, thermostat or heater leak is rather difficult to eliminate on the spot, therefore, in such a situation, it is necessary to add water to the cooling system and carefully monitor the temperature indicator while driving, periodically restoring the level in the cooling system.
Long-term use of water instead of antifreeze leads to the formation of scale in the engine cooling system, deterioration of its cooling and, as a result, to a reduction in the resource.
Never add cold water to an overheated engine. The engine must cool down with the hood open for at least 30 minutes.
If there is no coolant leak, check the integrity and tension of the accessory drive belt (article - Replacing the Cummins ISF2.8 accessory drive belt).
Replace the torn belt or adjust the tension.
The engine can also overheat if the thermostat fails, which regulates the flow of fluid in the cooling system through the radiator or past it (to speed up the warm-up of a cold engine).
To check the thermostat, you need to check the temperature of the upper hose on a warm engine by touch.
Check the temperature of the lower hose connecting to the radiator by touch
If the lower radiator hose is cold, the thermostat is defective, there is no circulation through the radiator.
Often the cause of engine overheating is the failure of the viscous coupling, through which the fan impeller is driven.
Start the engine, watch the temperature and pay attention to whether the cooling fan starts to rotate when the engine overheats.
If it does not rotate, replace the clutch.
There are two valves in the expansion tank plug - inlet and outlet.
The exhaust valve plays an important role in ensuring optimal engine temperature.
It maintains an overpressure in the system of at least 0.10 MPa (1.1 kgf / cm 2), providing an increase in the temperature of the beginning of boiling of the coolant and preventing intense vaporization.
When the valve is jammed in the closed position during overheating, a significant excess of excess pressure occurs - more than 0.15 MPa (1.5 kgf / cm 2), which can lead to rupture of the expansion tank or the breakdown of one of the hoses.
In turn, valve jamming in the open position leads to premature boiling of the coolant.
The battery does not charge
If the red warning lamp of the battery discharge is lit in the instrument cluster, it means that the current does not flow from the generator to the on-board network and the energy reserve of the battery is being consumed.
It is unacceptable to operate the car with a lit warning lamp for the discharge of the battery, as sometimes a short circuit in the wiring can cause the lamp to light up, which leads to a fire in the engine compartment of the car.
Stop the car, turn off the engine and determine what fault caused the lamp to come on.
If the cause of the malfunction was not a short circuit, and the battery was fully charged, you can drive to the garage without a generator, but it is better to try to fix the malfunction on the spot.
Check if the accessory drive belt is broken. If the belt is intact, check its tension.
If the deflection is not correct, check the operation of the belt tensioner and, if it is serviceable, replace the belt (article - Replacing the Cummins ISF2.8 accessory drive belt).
If, even after tensioning the belt, the warning lamp still lights up, check if the 90 A fuse in the fuse block located in the engine compartment on the common bracket with the electronic unit of the engine control system is not blown.
If the fuse is burned out, replace it and start the engine.
If the voltage reading on the display is no longer flashing (the voltmeter needle is in the green zone of the scale, and the battery discharge warning lamp has gone out), then the voltage is correct and you can continue driving.
If the warning light for the discharge of the battery has not gone out, check the wire going from the generator to the "+" terminal of the battery and the attachment of the power wire to the starter.
Wires may be cut, broken inside insulation, or oxidized or loose contacts.
Correct the problem and start the engine.
If the charging current appears, you can continue driving.
If, even after the measures taken, the battery discharge lamp has not gone out, then the possible cause of the malfunction lies in the generator itself.
There may be several reasons, and it is better to eliminate them in a car service or garage, and you can only hope that there is enough energy in the battery to get to them.
In order to reduce the current consumption when driving a car with a faulty generator, if possible, turn off the radio, unnecessary lighting devices, a heater fan, etc.
Extraneous knocks appeared
Main bearing knocking
(bugged at the very bottom of the cylinder block) - very dangerous; stop the engine immediately, you will have to go to a car service or garage in tow.
The knock of a low tone, noticeably increases under load and with an increase in the crankshaft speed.
Often, its appearance is accompanied by a drop in oil pressure (the warning lamp for an emergency drop in oil pressure is on almost constantly).
Connecting rod bearing knocking
(bugged in the middle of the cylinder block) - very dangerous; stop the engine immediately, you will have to go to a car service or garage in tow.
The sound is rhythmic, ringing, metallic, medium tone. It increases significantly with increasing load and disappears completely when the fuel injector is turned off.
The knock of the piston pins (heard in the upper part of the cylinder block) is dangerous; without loading the engine, you can drive to a car service or garage on your own.
A rhythmic, high-pitched knock, with a sharp metallic tinge, is audible in all engine operating modes and intensifies as the load on the engine increases. It disappears completely when the fuel injector is turned off.
The knock of worn-out pistons and cylinders (heard in the same part of the engine as the knock of piston fingers) is not dangerous; without heavily loading the engine, you can drive to a car service or garage on your own.
A sound reminiscent of the clatter of pottery. It is especially well heard on an unheated engine; as it warms up, it decreases or disappears.
The knock of valves (heard in the upper part of the engine in the area of the block head cover) is not dangerous, you can drive to a car service or garage on your own.
A metallic thud against the background of a general dull noise.
It is well listened to at low and medium crankshaft speed from the side of the cylinder head above the valve locations.
When extraneous knocks appear in the suspension of a moving car, it is necessary to immediately establish their source, regardless of whether it is a constant knock or appears only when driving through irregularities.
It is better to check the condition of the suspension by placing the car on an overpass, observation ditch or lift, and if this is not possible, you can do this work on a free flat area, albeit with less convenience.
In any case, you will need an assistant.
Causes of knocking in the suspension and remedies
- Cause of malfunction
Defective shock absorbers:
- Loose bolts of the anti-roll bars of the front and rear suspensions; worn out pillows and rubber-metal hinges of the rods
Replace shock absorbers
Tighten the rod mountings; if the rubber pads are worn out, replace them
- Damage, deformation of the cushions of the upper mountings and bushings of the lower mountings of shock absorbers
Replace pads and bushings with torn, cracked or extruded rubber
- Wear of ball joints and front suspension mountings
Replace ball joints and bearings
- Increased clearance in the front wheel hub bearings
- Large imbalance of wheels
Balance the wheels
- Deformation of the rim
- Settlement or breakage of the front suspension spring
Replace the spring
- Wear of rubber bushings in the front and rear eyes of the rear suspension springs, as well as in the frame brackets, in the holes for the pins of the spring shackles.
Replace torn or cracked bushings
- Knock from the "breakdown" of the suspension due to the destruction of the compression buffers
Replace corrupted buffers
- Loosen the nuts of the stepladders securing the rear suspension springs.
- Frequent "breakdowns" of the rear suspension due to overloading of the rear axle
Tighten the nuts
Do not overload
Knocks in the driveline
A knock in the cardan gear during a sharp change in the driving mode and when shifting gears:
- Loose tightening of the nuts of the four bolts securing the cardan transmission to the gearbox flange
Tighten the nuts
- Loose tightening of the nuts of the two bolts securing the intermediate support to the frame cross member
Tighten the nuts
- Wear of bearings and trunnions of universal joint crosspieces
Vibration of cardan transmission:
- Lost balancing plate
Balance the shaft
- Incorrectly assembled spline connection (marks on the parts are not aligned)
Install the parts according to the labels
- Increased runout of the sliding fork in the transmission extension
Initially reposition the fork on the splines 180˚ and check if the runout is reduced.
If it does not decrease, replace the parts.
After replacing the splined yoke, balance the shaft
- Worn or broken one of the hinges
Replace pivot or driveline assembly
- Breakage or damage to the flange of the drive gear wheel of the rear axle
- The propeller shaft tube is bent or crumpled
Increased noise in the driveline:
- The cage of the bearing of the intermediate support is destroyed
Replace support assembly
Knocks in the rear axle
Noise (hum) of the bridge at increased volume:
- Loose tightening of the drive pinion flange nut
Tighten the nut
- Worn or damaged drive gear or differential bearings
Check the condition of the bearings and replace if necessary
Pulsating bridge noise:
- The tightening of the bolts of the driven gear is loosened or it is installed skewed
Tighten the driven gear mounting bolts and check its runout
High-pitched noise (howl):
- Insufficient oil level
Restore oil level to normal level
- Filled with liquid oil
Change the oil (article - Checking and changing the oil in the gearbox and the rear axle GAZelle Next)
- Incorrectly adjusted contact between the teeth of the main gear
Check the contact patch and adjust it (article - Assembling and adjusting the gearbox of the Gazelle Next bridge)
- Seizure marks on the working surfaces of the final drive gears
Strong knocking on the axle during sudden acceleration after coasting or when cornering:
- Severe wear of differential parts
Check the total backlash in the final drive and differential.
Replace worn parts.
Continuous knocking and crunching in the bridge:
- Wear of teeth or bearings
Replace worn parts
Vibration and shock on the steering wheel
The cause of knocking from below can be malfunctions not only of the suspension, but also of the steering of the car.
- Increased clearance in the front wheel hub bearings
- Loosening of the nuts of fastening of the ball pins of the steering rods
Tighten the nuts
- Increased clearance in the ball joints of the steering rods
Replace tie rod ends
- Looseness of the steering gear
Tighten the steering rack mount
A possible cause of vibration and shock to the steering wheel when driving at speeds above 70-80 km / h may be an imbalance in the front wheels.
If shocks and vibrations on the steering wheel appear at the moment you press the brake pedal, it is necessary to replace the brake pads, repair or replace the front brake discs.
A decrease in the efficiency of a car's braking, its skidding during braking, and a beating of the brake pedal during braking should become a signal for an urgent check of the brakes.
Check the brake fluid level in the brake master cylinder reservoir regularly.
The brake fluid level should be between the MAX and MIN marks on the wall of the reservoir (approximately at the level of the reservoir connector).
The reason for the loss of braking efficiency can be the unsatisfactory operation of the vacuum amplifier.
For its express check, press the brake pedal several times with the engine off to remove the vacuum in the amplifier, and then, while holding the pedal, start the engine.
If, after starting the engine, the pedal lowers a little, the vacuum booster is operational.
If the pedal remains stationary, check the integrity and reliability of the hose attachment to the vacuum booster check valve and to the engine vacuum pump.
Replace or repair defective hose. If the hose is serviceable, replacement of the vacuum booster is required.
If braking is accompanied by beating and pulsation of the brake pedal, you should first check the condition of the front disc brakes.
With the vehicle on a jack, remove the front wheel and check the movement of the brake pads.
To do this, try to remove the pads from the brake disc with a screwdriver through the window in the caliper.
If the pads cannot be parted, then the pads have lost their mobility in the caliper slots or the piston is seized in the brake cylinder.
Jamming of the brake cylinder piston leads to constant braking of the corresponding wheel when the pedal is released, loss of directional stability and skidding of the car during braking.
After unscrewing the upper caliper mounting bolt, fold the caliper and check the movement of the pads.
If they move with difficulty, clean the end surfaces of the shoe bases and the seats in the shoe guide from dirt and rust, ensuring that the shoes move completely freely.
Check the thickness of the pads at the same time. If it is less than 2 mm, replace the pads.
Inspect the brake disc. The brake disc must be at least 30 mm thick.
The surface of the disc must be flat and smooth on both sides.
If the surface of the disc is covered with rust in places, which usually happens after a long parking of the car with dry brakes, try sanding the working surface with a fine-grained emery cloth.
If this procedure does not help, you will have to give the discs for grinding or replace them with new ones.
If braking is accompanied by jerks of the car and a squeak in the area of the rear wheels, the rear of the car skids during braking, check the condition of the drum brakes of the rear wheels.
With the vehicle on a jack, remove the rear wheels and brake drums one at a time.
Measure the diameters of their working surfaces.
The inner diameter of the drum should be no more than 283.0 mm, the working surface of the drum should be flat and smooth, without ring marks and clearly visible ovality (not more than 0.5 mm, it can be determined by the unevenly worn drum working surface).
If the inner diameter of the drum is larger than the permissible one, the ring marks are very deep or uneven wear of the working surface is clearly visible, the drum will have to be replaced with a new one.