K9K TURBO engine - supercharged, in-line, liquid-cooled, four-cylinder, with ONS gas distribution mechanism

Конструкция дизельного двигателя К9К

The cylinder head of the diesel engine is made of aluminum alloy.

Конструкция дизельного двигателя К9ККонструкция дизельного двигателя К9К

The cylinder head gasket is made of metal, which makes it more resistant to high temperature and pressure.

The engine block is cast from gray cast iron with cylinder liners already formed. Crankshaft bearings have cast iron covers that are part of the block, including bolts

Liners are inserted in both parts of the bearings. Liners have tongue locks and lubrication grooves around the center circle.

The engine camshaft is installed in the bearing bed, made in the head body, and is fixed against axial movement by thrust flanges.

Конструкция дизельного двигателя К9К

The crankshaft rotates in main bearings with thin-walled steel liners with an anti-friction layer

The axial movement of the crankshaft is limited by two half rings installed in the grooves of the middle main bearing bed. The oil passages to the bearings are run transversely (diagonally).

The flywheel, cast from cast iron, is mounted on the rear end of the crankshaft and is secured by six bolts.

A toothed rim is pressed onto the flywheel for starting the engine with a starter.

The pistons are made of aluminum castings.

A recess with a guiding rib is made in the piston bottom on the combustion chamber side, which ensures the swirling movement of the intake air and, as a result, very good mixture formation

A special cooling circuit ensures that the piston is cooled during the exhaust stroke. Friction in the piston group is reduced by the graphite coating of the piston skirt.

Piston pins are installed in the piston bosses with a gap and are pressed with an interference fit into the upper connecting rod heads, which by their lower heads are connected to the crankshaft connecting rod journals through thin-walled liners similar in design to the main ones.

Due to the high maximum cycle pressure, the piston pin diameter is increased.

Steel connecting rods, forged, with an I-section.

The connecting rod and its cover are made from a single workpiece and processed in one piece, after which the cover is chipped off from the connecting rod using a special technology

As a result, the most accurate fit of the cap to its connecting rod is ensured. In this case, installing the cover on another connecting rod is unacceptable.

Combined lubrication system. oil flow. Oil from the oil sump is sucked in by the oil pump, passes through the oil filter and is supplied under pressure to the engine

Oil pump with overpressure valve driven by roller chain from crankshaft sprocket

Under the crankshaft of the engine there is an oil deflector that prevents the rapid overflow of oil

The aluminum alloy crankcase is integrated with the front and rear covers and together with them is attached to the engine block.

Конструкция дизельного двигателя К9К

An oil heat exchanger 6 and an oil filter 3 are also embedded in the lubrication system (Fig. 5)

An overpressure valve is also mounted in the oil filter housing, allowing the oil to flow back. The oil filter is equipped with a replaceable paper filter element.

The engine cooling system is sealed, with an expansion tank, consists of a cooling jacket made in casting and surrounding the cylinders in the block, combustion chambers and gas channels in the cylinder head

Forced circulation of the coolant is provided by a centrifugal water pump driven from the crankshaft by an accessory drive belt

to maintain a normal operating temperature of the coolant, a thermostat is installed in the cooling system, which closes the large circle of the system when the engine is cold and the coolant temperature is low.

Конструкция дизельного двигателя К9К

Turbocharging and exhaust gas recirculation system. The exhaust manifold is attached to the turbocharger flange with nuts

The turbocharger is used to increase the air pressure by means of a turbine, which is driven by the exhaust gases.

Turbine bearing lubrication is included in the general engine lubrication system.

The turbocharging system is supplemented by an exhaust gas recirculation system.

The amount of exhaust gases supplied to the system is controlled by an exhaust gas recirculation solenoid valve, the cone-shaped pusher of which changes the cross-section of the bypass opening at different valve positions.

Supply system. Clean air is sucked into the cylinders of a diesel engine when the piston moves down

During the compression stroke, the pressure in the cylinder rises sharply, with the temperature in it becoming higher than the ignition temperature of diesel fuel

If the piston is in front of TDC, then diesel fuel is injected into the cylinder heated to a temperature of + 700-900˚C, which ignites spontaneously, so spark plugs are not required.

However, when starting the engine after a long idle period (cold), especially if the air temperature is low, simple compression is often not enough to ignite the combustible mixture. For this case, glow plugs are installed in the combustion chamber, which are located so that the jet of fuel from the nozzle atomizer hits the glowing tip of the plug and ignites.

Конструкция дизельного двигателя К9К

The glow plugs are automatically switched on at the moment immediately preceding the switching on of the starter. In this case, the indicator 9 in the instrument cluster turns on (see Fig. 7), and the glow plugs begin to heat up to a high temperature.

The main purpose of spark plug heating is to reliably ignite the fuel injected into the cylinder.

After the spark plug is heated to the required temperature (it usually takes a few seconds), the indicator goes out, and the engine can be started

Typically, the warning light goes out the faster the higher the engine temperature. Immediately before starting the engine (or most often shortly after), the glow plugs are switched off

In most modern engines, they can continue to run for up to several minutes after starting to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere when the engine is cold, as well as to stabilize the combustion process in an engine that is not yet fully warmed up.

Then the supply of current to the candles is stopped.

Thus, the start of the diesel engine and its further operation directly depend on the correct operation of the glow plugs.

Fuel is supplied by a high pressure fuel pump (HPF) directly from the fuel tank. In the high-pressure fuel pump, the fuel is compressed before injection, then supplied to the engine cylinders in the order of priority of their operation

At the same time, the fuel pump regulator measures fuel depending on the position of the gas pedal.

Diesel fuel is injected through the injectors into the pre-chamber of the corresponding cylinder at a certain point in time

Due to the shape of the prechamber (vortex chamber), the incoming air receives a certain swirl during compression, as a result of which the fuel is optimally mixed with the air.

Before the fuel enters the injection pump, it passes through the fuel filter, in which it is cleaned of impurities and water. That is why it is important to replace the filter in a timely manner, according to the regulations.

The high-pressure fuel pump does not require maintenance. All moving parts of the pump are lubricated with diesel fuel. The injection pump is driven from the crankshaft pulley by a toothed belt.

Since the diesel engine self-ignites the combustible mixture, the ignition system is not required, and a solenoid valve is installed in the injection pump

To stop the engine, the voltage supply to the solenoid valve is interrupted and the valve closes the fuel line, thereby stopping the fuel supply and the engine

When the starter is turned on, voltage is applied to the solenoid valve and it opens the fuel line.

Engine characteristics:

- compression ratio - 18.25;

- cylinder diameter - 76;

- piston stroke - 80.5;

- engine displacement - 1461 cm3;

Tightening torques for engine parts (daNm)

Cylinder head bolts - 2.5 daNm then turn 255˚ ± 10˚

Camshaft bearing cap retaining bolts 1

Camshaft pulley retaining bolt - 3 + 84 °

Vacuum pump retaining bolts 2.1

Thermostat block retaining bolts on the cylinder head 1

Exhaust manifold bolt nuts 2.6

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Retaining Bolts 2.1

Glow plugs 1.5

Bolts of fastening of fuel injection pump 2,1

Injector flange mounting bolt 2.8

Fuel rail retaining bolts 2.8

High pressure fuel line connection 3.8

Cylinder head cover retaining bolts 1

Nuts of the studs securing the manifold to the exhaust manifold 2.6

Turbocharger oil return line 0.9

Turbocharger oil supply line 2,3

Timing drive tension roller mounting bolt 2.5

Hole plug for TDC fixing 2

Cylinder head pendulum support retaining bolts 2.1

Heat exchanger connecting nipple 4.5

Oil filter bracket retaining bolts 4.5

Crankshaft main bearing caps retaining bolts 2.7 + 47 ° ± 5 °

Connecting rod cap bolt nuts 2 + 45 ° ± 6 °

Knock sensor 2

Oil level sensor 2,2

Oil pump retaining bolts 2.5

Engine Oil Pan Retaining Bolts - See Procedure

Water pump retaining bolts 1,1

Flywheel bolts 5 to 5.5

Clutch cover retaining bolts 0.8

Pulley bolt 2 + 130 ° ± 15 °

Bolt of fastening of the inlet pipe of the water pump 2

Multi-function bracket retaining bolts 4

Alternator retaining bolts 2.1

Power steering pump retaining bolts 2.1

A / C compressor bolts 2.1